1100 BC. Phoenician traders settle in Cádiz in southern Iberia.
230 BC. Carthaginians occupy southern and eastern Iberia and found Barcio (Barcelona)
218-220 BC. Romans occupy Iberia having beaten Carthage in Second Punic War. Inhabitants of Iberia were granted full Roman citizenship for much of this period.
409. Germanic tribes including the Vandals and Visigoths occupy Iberian peninsula.
711. The Moors invade, Tariq ibn Ziyad lands at Gibraltar with a combined Arab and Berber armyto commence the Moorish conquest of Spain. The Christians defeat Muslims in northern Spain in 720, effectively spliting Spain into a Christain north with a capital in León and the Muslim south.
756. Independent Emirate is established in Iberia, with Córdoba as its capital and in 785 construction began on the Cordoba Mosque
1212. Decisive Christian victory at battle of Navas de Tolosa spells the beginning of the end of Moorish rule in Spain. Cordoba was taken from the moors in 1236, and in 1248 Ferdinand conquered Seville.
1492. King Fernando and Queen Isabel's army capture Granada, the last moorish stronghold after a long siege. Christopher Columbus sets sail on his voyage of discovery to America.
1500's Spanish expansion into South America
1588. Spanish Empire is at the height of its power, but is slowly declining. The defeat of the Spanish Armada sent to invade England marks the beginning of this era.
1702-13. War of Spanish Succession. King Carlos II died childless and eventually the Bourbon dynasty accedes to Spanish throne following the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 which settled the throne on the Bourbon, Philippe IV King of Spain
1704 an Anglo-Dutch fleet captured Gibraltar during the War of the Spanish Succession. Spain ceded the Rock to Britain in 1713, but didn't end military attempts to regain it until the failure of the Great Siege of 1779-83.
1805 Admiral Nelson defeats the French/Spanish fleet in Cadiz.
1808 Napoleon replaces Spanish King with his brother Bonaparte, Spaniards revolt against French occupation.
1808-14. Peninsular War against Napoleon's occupying army. Guerilla tactics and support from Wellington's army end in French defeat.
1898. Spanish American War. Spain loses Cuba and Philippines.
1923 Primo de Rivera seizes control as dictator but Alfonso XIII remains as King
1931. Spanish king is forced to abdicate. Spain becomes a republic.
1936-39. Spanish Civil War. Spain's army led by General Franco revolts and 3 year Spanish civil war begins. With General Franco's victory a dictatorship is established.
1975. Franco dies, Spain becomes a constitutional monarchy under Juan Carlos de Borbón .
1986 Spain joins European Community
1999 Spain becomes part of the Euro system
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