The Phoenicians arrived on the Iberian peninsula attracted by mining wealth, around 1100 B.C. and founded several colonies, the most important of which was Gadir (today's Cadiz).
Also Greeks founded colonies in southern Spain and along the Mediterranean coast including Rosas, Ampurias and Sagunto.
The Phoenicians, during their struggle against the Greeks, called on the Carthaginians
for help, and Hamilcar Barca, took possession of most of Spain. Their most important
colonies were the island Ibiza and Cartagena, the "new Carthago".
After Rome defeated Carthage in the Punic Wars, Romans also gained control of the Carthaginian colonies in Spain, and eventually controlled the entire peninsula. The province Hispania became part of the Roman empire and acquired great importance - two Roman emperors, Traian and Hadrian, were born there, as were the writers Seneca and Lucan. Spaniards absorbed completely the Roman culture as still today is very evident in their language, law, the municipality and the Christian religion.
Roman ruled Spain from around 200 BC for the next 600 years
Gothic tribes invaded the peninsula in 409, when the Roman empire began to crumble. The Suevi, Vandals and Alans entered Spain, but they were defeated by the Visigoths who, by the end of the 6th century, has occupied the whole of the Peninsula.
Gothic dominance lasted until 711, when Muslim armies crossed the Straight of Gibraltar and defeated Roderic, the last Visigoth king.
Spain under the Moors Find out about Spain under Moorish dominance
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